(Mixed) Martial Arts Journal Articles

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7/4/07 12:12:28PM
I am writing a paper right now and am spending some time on PubMed. As a break I decided to do a search on mixed martial arts journal articles and foudn a few. Because most of you will not be able access these articles I am going to download them for you. For the time being, if you want to read these articles just shoot me a PM with your email and I will send whichever ones you want (just state the title(s))

Some of the studies are not accessible by me so I am just pasting the title, ref. and/or abstract. I may be able to dig some of these up in the near future.

7/4/07 12:19:37PM
Injuries in martial arts: a comparison of five styles
Full text available
Br J Sports Med. 2005 Jan;39(1):29-33

Zetaruk MN, Violán MA, Zurakowski D, Micheli LJ.
Children's Hospital, University of Manitoba, Canada. mzetaruk@shaw.ca <mzetaruk@shaw.ca>

OBJECTIVE: To compare five martial arts with respect to injury outcomes. METHODS: A one year retrospective cohort was studied using an injury survey. Data on 263 martial arts participants (Shotokan karate, n = 114; aikido, n = 47; tae kwon do, n = 49; kung fu, n = 39; tai chi, n = 14) were analysed. Predictor variables included age, sex, training frequency (<or=3 h/week v >3 h/week), experience (<3 years v >or=3 years), and martial art style. Outcome measures were injuries requiring time off from training, major injuries (>or=7 days off), multiple injuries (>or=3), body region, and type of injury. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI). Fisher's exact test was used for comparisons between styles, with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: The rate of injuries, expressed as percentage of participants sustaining an injury that required time off training a year, varied according to style: 59% tae kwon do, 51% aikido, 38% kung fu, 30% karate, and 14% tai chi. There was a threefold increased risk of injury and multiple injury in tae kwon do than karate (p<0.001). Subjects >or=18 years of age were at greater risk of injury than younger ones (p<0.05; OR 3.95; CI 1.48 to 9.52). Martial artists with at least three years experience were twice as likely to sustain injury than less experienced students (p<0.005; OR 2.46; CI 1.51 to 4.02). Training >3 h/week was also a significant predictor of injury (p<0.05; OR 1.85; CI 1.13 to 3.05). Compared with karate, the risks of head/neck injury, upper extremity injury, and soft tissue injury were all higher in aikido (p<0.005), and the risks of head/neck, groin, and upper and lower extremity injuries were higher in tae kwon do (p<0.001). No sex differences were found for any of the outcomes studied. CONCLUSIONS: There is a higher rate of injury in tae kwon do than Shotokan karate. Different martial arts have significantly different types and distribution of injuries. Martial arts appear to be safe for young athletes, particularly those at beginner or intermediate levels.
PMID: 15618336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

No holds barred sport fighting: a 10 year review of mixed martial arts competition
Full text available
Br J Sports Med. 2006 Feb;40(2):169-72

Buse GJ.
Cannon USAF Clinics, Aerospace/Preventive Medicine, Clovis, NM 88103, USA. george.buse@cannon.af.mil

OBJECTIVE: To identify the most salient medical issues that may be associated with mixed martial arts competition by determining the types and proportions of match stoppages. METHODS: Publicly available video footage of 1284 men competing in 642 consecutive televised matches from November 1993 to November 2003 was reviewed to determine the reasons for which matches were stopped. Matches were sanctioned by either a United States or Japan based mixed martial arts organisation. RESULTS: Of the 642 matches, 182 (28.3+/-3.4%) were stopped because of head impact, 106 (16.5+/-2.9%) because of musculoskeletal stress, 91 (14.1+/-2.7%) because of neck choke, 83 (12.9+/-2.6%) because of miscellaneous trauma, 173 (27.0+/-3.4%) because of expiration of match time, and seven (1.0+/-0.8%) because of disqualification, where the values in parentheses are percentages+/-95% confidence interval. CONCLUSIONS: Blunt force to the head resulted in the highest proportion of match stoppages. Further research is warranted to delineate the morbidity associated with participation in mixed martial arts.
PMID: 16432006 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Risk of cervical injuries in mixed martial arts
Full text available
Br J Sports Med. 2005 Jul;39(7):444-7

Kochhar T, Back DL, Mann B, Skinner J.
Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, UK. tonykochhar@hotmail.com <tonykochhar@hotmail.com>

BACKGROUND: Mixed martial arts have rapidly succeeded boxing as the world's most popular full contact sport, and the incidence of injury is recognised to be high. OBJECTIVE: To assess qualitatively and quantitatively the potential risk for participants to sustain cervical spine and associated soft tissue injuries. METHODS: Four commonly performed manoeuvres with possible risks to the cervical spine were analysed with respect to their kinematics, and biomechanical models were constructed. RESULTS: Motion analysis of two manoeuvres revealed strong correlations with rear end motor vehicle impact injuries, and kinematics of the remaining two suggested a strong risk of injury. Mathematical models of the biomechanics showed that the forces involved are of the same order as those involved in whiplash injuries and of the same magnitude as compression injuries of the cervical spine. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that there is a significant risk of whiplash injuries in this sport, and there are no safety regulations to address these concerns.
PMID: 15976168 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Self-reported training methods of mixed martial artists at a regional reality fighting event
Full text not available
J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Feb;18(1):194-6.

Amtmann JA.
Applied Health Science Program, Montana Tech, Butte, Montana 59701, USA. jamtmann@mtech.edu

This study surveyed 28 athletes competing at a regional mixed martial arts (MMA) event. The survey attempted to gather information regarding overall training volume, supplement use, and specific exercises used. The survey return rate was 100% (28/28). Twenty-five out of the 28 athletes supplemented their training with strength training. Overall frequency of strength training sessions/week ranged from 1-7, and overall frequency of fighting specific training sessions/week ranged from 3-12. Five out of the 28 athletes used/had used anabolic-androgenic steroids. Twelve of the MMA athletes did not perform exercises specifically for the neck musculature, and only 8 used the power clean and/or power snatch within their strength-training program. The results suggest that strength and conditioning specialists should educate MMA athletes regarding the importance of balanced training, effective exercises, and the side effects of anabolic androgenic steroid use.
PMID: 14971990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Can martial arts falling techniques prevent injuries?
Full Text available
Inj Prev. 2003 Sep;9(3):284
Leavitt FJ.

No abstract available
PMID: 12966025 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A 16 year study of injuries to professional kickboxers in the state of Victoria, Australia.
Full Text available
Br J Sports Med. 2003;37(5):448-51
Zazryn TR, Finch CF, McCrory P.
Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Monash University Medical School, Prahran, Victoria, Australia.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate and type of injuries occurring to registered professional kickboxers in Victoria, Australia over a 16 year period. METHODS: Data describing all fight outcomes and injuries sustained during competition for the period August 1985 to August 2001 were obtained from the Victorian Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board. RESULTS: A total of 382 injuries were recorded from 3481 fight participations, at an injury rate of 109.7 injuries per 1000 fight participations. The most common body region injured was the head/neck/face (52.5%), followed by the lower extremities (39.8%). Specifically, injuries to the lower leg (23.3%), the face (19.4%), and intracranial injury (17.2%) were the most common. Over 64% of the injuries were superficial bruising or lacerations. CONCLUSION: The nature of kickboxing, whereby kicking the opponent is the prime movement and the head a prime target, is reflected in the distributions of body regions most commonly injured by participants. Further research into injury patterns in different styles of kickboxing and the mechanism of injury occurrence is required. Exposure adjusted prospective studies are needed to monitor injury rates over time.
PMID: 14514540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kidney trauma in martial arts: a case report of kidney contusion in jujitsu.
Full Text available
Am J Sports Med. 2004 Mar;32(2):522-4
Itagaki MW, Knight NB.
University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA. itagaki@uiuc.edu

No abstract available
PMID: 14977684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Martial arts injuries
Full Text available
Med Sport Sci. 2005;48:59-73.
Pieter W.
School of Health Sciences, Science University of Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia. yshin516@yahoo.com

OBJECTIVE: To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. DATA SOURCES: The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. MAIN RESULTS: In general, the absolute number of injuries in girls is lower than in boys. However, when expressed relative to exposure, the injury rates of girls are higher. Injuries by body region reflect the specific techniques and rules of the martial art. The upper extremities tend to get injured more often in judo, the head and face in karate and the lower extremities in taekwondo. Activities engaged in at the time of injury included performing a kick or being thrown in judo, while punching in karate, and performing a roundhouse kick in taekwondo. Injury type tends to be martial art specific with sprains reported in judo and taekwondo and epistaxis in karate. Injury risk factors in martial arts include age, body weight and exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive measures should focus on education of coaches, referees, athletes, and tournament directors. Although descriptive research should continue, analytical studies are urgently needed.
PMID: 16247253 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7/4/07 12:48:58PM
Judo--the gentle way: a replication of studies on martial arts and aggression.
Full text not avaialble.
Percept Mot Skills. 1999 Jun;88(3 Pt 1):992-6
Lamarre BW, Nosanchuk TA.
Department of Sociology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

There have been numerous studies of the effects of traditional martial arts training on aggressiveness, most reporting a decline in aggressiveness with training. The majority of these studies have examined students of karate or taekwondo, disciplines emphasizing strikes and blocks. In contrast, this cross-sectional study examined the effects of traditional judo training on aggressiveness by looking at 51 judo students. Furthermore, we incorporate into our analysis two variables generally associated with aggression, age and sex, to control for their effects. Aggressiveness declined as expected across training and ages, but surprisingly sex had no effect in this setting.
PMID: 10407909 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Length of training, hostility and the martial arts: a comparison with other sporting groups.
Full text not avaialble.
Br J Sports Med. 1992 Sep;26(3):118-20
Daniels K, Thornton E.
School of Management, Cranfield Institute of Technology, Bedfordshire, UK.

Previous research has indicated that training in the martial arts leads to a reduction in levels of hostility. However, such research has only compared hostility within martial arts groups. The present research compares two martial arts groups and two other sporting groups on levels of assaultive, verbal and indirect hostility. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between length of training in the respondent's stated sport and whether that sport was a martial art in predicting assaultive and verbal hostility. The form of the interaction suggests that participation in the martial arts is associated, over time, with decreased feelings of assaultive and verbal hostility.
PMID: 1422642 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

An analysis of the relationship between hostility and training in the martial arts.
Full text not avaialble.
J Sports Sci. 1990 Summer;8(2):95-101
Daniels K, Thornton EW.
Department of Psychology, University of Liverpool, UK.

Contrasting views and data are available on the issue of whether combative sports facilitate or reduce aggression. In the present study levels of hostility were assessed in two groups of martial arts students using the Buss-Durkee Inventory. Levels of hostility on a variety of the sub-scales were compared with scores from similar samples of participants in a body contact, aggressive but non-combative sport (rugby football) and a competitive sport with no body contact or direct aggression (badminton). When the effects of age and length of training were controlled by use of partial correlation there was no evidence to support group differences in either the combined score from the varied sub-scales of the inventory or the more specific assaultive sub-scale. However, there was evidence to suggest a significant effect of length of training on hostility levels in martial artists. Beginners attracted to the martial arts were more hostile but the hostility declined with the duration of training. No difference was apparent in this respect for students participating in either jui jitsu or karate. It is suggested that such differential effects with respect to length of training may lead to the overall absence of the between-sport differences. The results provide tentative support for the notion that the discipline of the martial arts may reduce assaultive hostility rather than serve as a model for such behaviour, yet support the need for prospective longitudinal studies on intra-individual hostility.
PMID: 2231852 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A martial arts exploration of elbow anatomy: Ikkyo (Aikido's first teaching).
Full text not avaialble.
Percept Mot Skills. 1991 Dec;73(3 Pt 2):1227-34.Links
Seitz FC, Olson GD, Stenzel TE.
WAMI Medical School Program, Montana State University, Bozeman.

The Martial Art of Aikido, based on several effective anatomical principles, is used to subdue a training partner. One of these methods is Ikkyo (First Teaching). According to Saotome, the original intent of Ikkyo was to "break the elbow joint" of an enemy. Nowadays the intent is to secure or pin a training partner to the mat. This investigation focused on examining Ikkyo with the purpose of describing the nerves, bones, and muscles involved in receiving this technique. Particular focus was placed on the locations and sources of the reported pain.
PMID: 1805177 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Taping of foot and ankle for Korean karate.
Full text not avaialble.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1993 Sep;83(9):534-6.
Agnew PS.
Eastern Virginia Graduate School of Medicine, Norfolk 23464.

In the practice of Korean karate, the foot is often used as a weapon in self defense. Injuries to the foot are common. Analysis of patterns to these injuries and requirements of the sport led to the development of a strapping technique for protecting the foot from the most common injuries.
PMID: 7904644 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Video analysis of head blows leading to concussion in competition Taekwondo
Full text not avaialble.
Brain Inj. 2004 Dec;18(12):1287-96.
Koh JO, Watkinson EJ, Yoon YJ.
Department of Sports and Leisure Studies, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea. kohjaeok@hotmail.com

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To analyse the situational and contextual factors surrounding concussions and head blows in Taekwondo. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Prospective design. Direct observation, subject interview and videotape recording used. A total of 2328 competitors participated in the 2001 tournament, South Korea. All matches were recorded on videotape. All recipients of head blows were interviewed by athletic therapists and the researcher immediately after the match. The videotapes of concussions and head blows were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 1009 head blows including concussions were analysed. Head blows and concussions were most evident when the attacker was situated in a closed stance and received a single roundhouse kick. The most frequent anatomical site of the head impact was the temporal region. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of head blows and concussions is high in Taekwondo. Development of blocking skills, safety education, rigorous enforcement of the competition rules and improvement of head-gear are recommended.
PMID: 15666571 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Morbidity and mortality in the martial arts: a warning.
Full text not avaialble.
J Trauma. 1991 Feb;31(2):251-3.Links
Oler M, Tomson W, Pepe H, Yoon D, Branoff R, Branch J.
Halifax Medical Center, Daytona Beach, FL.

Approximately 1.5 to 2 million Americans participate in the martial arts. Injury anecdotes are reported from 10 years of providing medical coverage at martial arts activities. Included are data from two national Tae Kwon Do tournaments, one adult and one junior level. Previously unreported injuries, including a video-recorded fatality, demonstrate the danger inherent in participation. Of particular concern is the potential for serious neurologic injury. Recommendations are made for reducing the severity and frequency of injuries.
PMID: 1994086 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7/4/07 1:19:31PM
Injuries at the Canadian National Tae Kwon Do Championships: a prospective study
Full text available
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2004 Jul 27;5:22
Kazemi M, Pieter W.
Department of Clinical Studies, Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. mkazemi@cmcc.ca

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the injury rates in male and female adult Canadian Taekwondo athletes relative to total number of injuries, type and body part injured. METHODS: Subjects (219 males, 99 females) participated in the 1997 Canadian National Taekwondo Championships in Toronto, Canada. Injuries were recorded on an injury form to documents any injury seen and treatment provided by the health care team. These data were later used for this study. The injury form describes the athlete and nature, site, severity and mechanism of the injury. RESULTS: The overall rate of injuries was 62.9/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E). The males (79.9/1,000 A-E) sustained significantly more injuries than the females (25.3/1,000 A-E). The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region in the men (32.0 /1,000 A-E), followed by the head and neck (18.3/1,000 A-E). Injuries to the spine (neck, upper back, low back and coccyx) were the third most often injured body region in males (13.8/1,000 A-E). All injuries to the women were sustained to the lower extremities. The most common type of injury in women was the contusion (15.2/1,000 A-E). However, men's most common type of injury was the sprain (22.8/1,000 A-E) followed by joint dysfunction (13.7/1,000 A-E). Concussions were only reported in males (6.9/1,000 A-E). Compared to international counterparts, the Canadian men and women recorded lower total injury rates. However, the males incurred more cerebral concussions than their American colleagues (4.7/1,000 A-E). CONCLUSIONS: Similar to what was found in previous studies, the current investigation seems to suggest that areas of particular concern for preventive measures involve the head and neck as well as the lower extremities. This is the first paper to identify spinal joint dysfunction.
PMID: 15279679 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Fitness levels of middle aged martial art practitioners
Full text available
Br J Sports Med. 2004 Apr;38(2):143-7; discussion 147
Douris P, Chinan A, Gomez M, Aw A, Steffens D, Weiss S.
New York Institute of Technology, Old Westbury, NY, USA. pdouris@nyit.edu

OBJECTIVES: To quantify and compare fitness levels of middle aged practitioners of soo bahk do (SBD; a Korean martial art similar to karate) with those of sedentary subjects. METHODS: Eighteen volunteers, 14 men and four women (aged 40-60 years), participated. Nine sedentary subjects (mean age 46.7 years) and nine SBD practitioners (mean age 46.8 years) were matched for sex and age. All subjects participated in a one day battery of fitness tests. The following dependent variables were tested: body composition, balance, flexibility, quadriceps strength, grip strength, muscle endurance, and aerobic capacity. RESULTS: All dependent variables were analysed using paired t tests. Body composition (% body fat) for the SBD group was 18.9% v 30.8% for the sedentary group (p = 0.004). The SBD group was able to balance for 61.8 seconds v 26.2 seconds for the sedentary group (p = 0.02). The result for the sit and reach flexibility test was 22.3 cm for the SBD group v 10.4 cm for the sedentary group (p = 0.01). The number of push ups performed in one minute was 47.0 for the SBD group v 18.6 for the sedentary group (p = 0.0003), and the number of sit ups performed was 66.1 for the SBD group and 37.3 for the sedentary group (p = 0.00006). Aerobic capacity was 41.0 ml/kg/min v 31.1 ml/kg/min for the sedentary group (p = 0.04). Quadriceps strength was 99.5% (peak torque/body weight) v 83.0% for the sedentary group (p = 0.02). Only grip strength was not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant differences between the groups for most of the physical fitness tests. The SBD practitioners displayed greater aerobic capacity, balance, flexibility, muscle endurance, and strength, and less body fat than the sedentary controls matched for age and sex. SBD can be considered an excellent form of exercise for the promotion of fitness in adults. Health professionals should be aware that there are alternative methods to traditional exercise that can increase the physical fitness and health of the middle aged population.
PMID: 15039248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Oral trauma, mouthguard awareness, and use in two contact sports in Turkey.
Full text available
Dent Traumatol. 2006 Oct;22(5):242-6
Tulunoglu I, Ozbek M.
Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of dental hard and soft tissue injuries during participation in contact sports, and the awareness and use of mouthguards in a young adult sample of semi-professional or amateur boxers and tae kwon do participants in Turkey. The samples consisted of 274 young adults [174 male (63.5%) and 100 female (36.5%)] aged between 17 and 27 years of which 185 (67.5%) were tae kwon do practitioners, and 89 (32.5%) were boxers. The participants answered a standard questionnaire. All answers were evaluated and then statistical analyses were performed. Of the total sample, 61 of the subjects (22.3%) suffered dental trauma. Of these sufferers, 32 (17.3%) were boxers and 29 (32.6%) were tae kwon do practitioners. It was found that 19 (6.9%) athletes lost their teeth post-trauma. Of the 54 subjects (19.7%) suffering soft tissue injuries, 44 were female (81.5%), while only 10 were male (18.5%), of which 40 (74.1%) were tae kwon do practitioners and 14 (25.9%) were boxers. Of the total sample of 274 subjects, 228 (83.2%) were well informed about mouthguard usage. Of the total sample, 153 (55.8%) of the subjects used mouthguards, all of which were boil-and-bite type. The results of our study indicate that dentists and sports authorities in Turkey should promote the use of mouthguards in contact sports such as tae kwon do and boxing, which have a serious risk for dental and oral soft tissue trauma and tooth loss.
PMID: 16942553 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Elite tae kwon do athletes' satisfaction with custom-made mouthguards
Full text available
Dent Traumatol. 2006 Aug;22(4):193-7
Eroglu E, Diljin KA, Lütfi BM.
Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey. erdaleroglu@dishek.sdu.edu.tr

Mouthguards are considered by most authors to be an essential part of equipment for athletes participating in contact sports. However, there are few studies evaluating the satisfaction of the elite athlete with mouthguards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the satisfaction of elite tae kwon do athletes with custom-made mouthguards in a period of 4 months. The subjects were 22 elite athletes (11 boys and 11 girls) aged between 15 and 17 years. Each athlete was provided with an individual mouthguard made of ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) material. Using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) questionnaire, esthetic appearance, ability to talk and to breathe, kiyapping (yelling in tae kwon do), oral dryness, nausea, stability, ease in fitting into the mouth, inclination to chew and overall satisfaction were evaluated. Respective values of boys and girls were also compared. One-way anova and paired sampled t-tests were performed for statistical analyses using spss 11.0 windows program. There was no significant difference in the level of satisfaction between the first week and fourth month values. Results also showed that the level of satisfaction did not change statistically between male and female athletes.
PMID: 16872388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Physical fitness and anthropometrical profile of the Brazilian male judo team
Full text available
J Physiol Anthropol. 2007 Mar;26(2):59-67
Franchini E, Nunes AV, Moraes JM, Del Vecchio FB.
School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, Brazil. emersonfranchini@hotmail.com

The present study had as objectives (1) to compare the morphological and functional characteristics of the male judo players of the Brazilian Team A (n=7) with the judo players of Teams B and C (reserves; n=15), and (2) to verify the association between the variables measured. Thus, 22 athletes from the seven Olympic weight categories were submitted to: a body composition evaluation (body mass, height, ten skinfolds, eight circumferences, three bone diameters and percent body fat estimation); the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT); maximal strength tests (one repetition-maximum, 1 RM, in bench press, row, and squat); and the Cooper test. One-way analysis of covariance was used to compare the groups. The relationships between variables were determined by the Pearson coefficient correlation. The significance level was fixed at 5%. No significant difference was found in any variable between them. The main significant correlations observed were between the following variables: VO2max and number of throws in the SJFT (r=0.79); percent body fat and estimated VO2max (r=-0.83) and number of throws in the SJFT (r=-0.70); chest circumference and bench press 1 RM (r=0.90) and in the row (r=0.80); and thigh circumference and squat 1 RM (r=0.86). However, there was no significant correlation between circumferences and 1 RM/kg of body mass. According to these results the main conclusions are: (1) the physical variables measured do not discriminate performance when analysis is directed to the best athletes; (2) a higher percent body fat is negatively correlated with performance in activities with body mass locomotion (Cooper test and the SJFT); (3) judo players with higher aerobic power performed better in high-intensity intermittent exercise; (4) judo players with bigger circumferences present bigger absolute maximal strength.
PMID: 17435345 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Incidence of Injury in Professional Mixed Martial Arts Competitions
Full text available

No abstract or reference avaialable
7/4/07 1:25:43PM
Gender differences in the psychological response to weight reduction in judoists
Full text not available
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Apr;16(2):187-98.
Yoshioka Y, Umeda T, Nakaji S, Kojima A, Tanabe M, Mochida N, Sugawara K.
Dept of Hygiene, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562, Japan.

We examined gender-related differences in the psychological response to weight reduction in 43 judoists. Twenty-two males and 8 females who required weight reduction [weight reduction (WR) group] (the average percentages of weight reduction observed for males and females were 3.4% and 4.9%, respectively), and 5 males and 8 females who did not require weight reduction (non-WR group). The POMS scores were measured before and after weight reduction. The TMD (total mood disturbance) score in POMS significantly increased after weight reduction only in WR group males. In the female WR group, the anger and depression scores decreased after weight reduction, and the pre-value of the TMD score in thisgroup was relatively high. The psychological stress may be caused by anxiety engendered by the overall concept of weight reduction before actual weight reduction in females, whereas in males it may be caused by the actual weight reduction.
PMID: 16779925 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Bone density in elite judoists and effects of weight cycling on bone metabolic balance.
Full text available
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Apr;38(4):694-700
Prouteau S, Pelle A, Collomp K, Benhamou L, Courteix D.
Bone Tissue Architecture and Physical Exercise (ATOSEP Laboratory) University of Orleans, Orleans, France. stephanie.prouteau@chr-orleans.fr

PURPOSE: Weight cycling has been shown to exert negative effects on bone metabolism and bone mass, whereas weight-bearing activity is positively associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Bone health in judoists and effects of weight cycling on bone metabolism have not previously been investigated. To examine potential disrupter and stimulators of bone integrity, this study analyzed bone parameters at baseline and the effects of the first weight cycle of the season on bone metabolic status in 48 male and female elite judoists. METHODS: Body composition and lumbar, femoral, and total body BMD were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Cortisol, osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), and bone uncoupling index (UI) were measured in judoists at normal body weight, after weight reduction, and after regaining weight. As a comparison, a control group of moderately active students was included at baseline. Training, menstrual status, and calcium intake were assessed by questionnaires. RESULTS: EUweighted judoists displayed high BMD and an increased rate of bone formation. Precompetitive weight loss averaged 4 +/- 0.3% of body weight and induced an acute rise in cortisol (81%, P < 0.05) and CTx (33%, P < 0.0001), with a metabolic imbalance in favor of bone resorption. A 4 +/- 0.5% weight regain restored a positive UI in favor of bone formation. Metabolic responses were not dependent on gender. BMD was unaltered by weight cycling. CONCLUSIONS: Increased bone formation rate pertaining to judo athletes lent protection from alterations in bone metabolic balance associated with weight cycling. This observation suggests that powerful osteogenic stimuli provided by judo's unique biomechanical environment may help prevent bone loss associated with weight loss.
PMID: 16679985 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Influence of postural regulation in male judokas' direction of falls.
Full text not available
Percept Mot Skills. 2005 Dec;101(3):885-90
Paillard T, Montoya R, Dupui P.
Departement STAPS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, ZI Bastillac Sud, 65000 Tarbes, France. Thierry.paillard@univ-pau.f

In competitions, judokas tend to have a predominant direction of fall: forwards or backwards. A relationship was hypothesized between the direction of fall and certain parameters of the judokas' postural activities. 20 judokas, 16 to 19 yr. old (17.7 +/- 0.4 yr.), had practised judo for at least seven years. They were separated into two groups. The group of forward fallers (n = 9) and the group of backward fallers (n = 11) performed posturokinetic tests to assess their static and dynamic balance. One parameter assessed through the analysis of postural activities, the average position of anteroposterior dynamic oscillations, was inversely related to the judokas' direction of fall. Postural activities might not play a direct role but perhaps an indirect one in the direction of falls by expert judokas.
PMID: 16491693 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Food restriction, performance, biochemical, psychological, and endocrine changes in judo athletes
Full text not available
Int J Sports Med. 2006 Jan;27(1):9-18
Degoutte F, Jouanel P, Bègue RJ, Colombier M, Lac G, Pequignot JM, Filaire E.
Laboratoire BAPS, UFR Recherche, Université Blaise Pascal, Bâtiment Biologie, Les Cézeaux, Aubière, France.

In order to test the hypothesis that dietary restriction may have a negative influence on physiological and psychological adaptation to a judo competition, we examined the effects of weight loss induced by restricting energy and fluid intake on the physiology, psychology, and physical performance of judo athletes. Twenty male judoka were randomly assigned to one of two groups (Group A: called diet, n = 10; height 174.8 +/- 1.9 cm, body weight 75.9 +/- 3.1 kg; they were asked to lose approximately 5 % of their body weight through self-determined means during the week before the competition; Group B: called control, n = 10; height 176.4 +/- 1.1 cm, body weight 73.3 +/- 6.3 kg maintained their body weight during the week before the competition). A battery of tests was performed during a baseline period (T1), on the morning of a simulated competition (T2) and 10 min after the end of the competition (T3). The test battery included assessment for body composition, performance tests, evaluation of mood, determination of metabolic and hormonal responses. Dietary data were collected using a 7-day diet record. The nutrient analysis indicated that all the athletes followed a low carbohydrate diet whatever the period of the investigation. For the Group A, the food restriction (- 4 MJ per day) resulted in significant decreases of the body weight and altered the mood by increasing Fatigue, Tension and decreasing Vigour. Dietary restriction had also a significant influence on metabolic and endocrine parameters and was associated with poor performance. After the competition, significant decreases of the levels in testosterone, T/C ratio, alkali reserve, and free fatty acid were observed in both groups, whereas the plasma concentrations in insulin, ammonia, urea, and uric acid were increased. In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of energy restriction and intense exercise training, which causes weight reduction before a competition, adversely affects the physiology and psychology of judo athletes and impairs physical performance before the competition. Our data are the first to demonstrate that a competition including five 5-min bouts induced the same changes of physiological and psychological variables and performance whatever the dietary intake (dietary restriction or not) during the seven days before the competition.
PMID: 16388436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Eating attitudes, body esteem, perfectionism and anxiety of judo athletes and nonathletes
Full text not available
Int J Sports Med. 2007 Apr;28(4):340-5. Epub 2006 Oct 6
Rouveix M, Bouget M, Pannafieux C, Champely S, Filaire E.
Laboratoire de Biologie des Activités Physiques et Sportives, UFR STAPS, Aubière, France.

The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and relationships between disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, musculoskeletal injuries and psychological characteristics in 24 judo athletes (12 females and 12 males) and 31 controls (14 females and 17 males). All these parameters were assessed by a health/medical, dieting and menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Multidimensional perfectionism scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem, the Body esteem scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Body mass index (BMI) was also computed. Twenty-five percent of female athletes would be "at risk" of EDs (EAT-26 > 20) and 0 % in the other sample groups. Bone injuries sustained over the judo athlete career were reported by 25 % of females and 33.3 % of males, while 35.7 % of the female controls reported bone injuries. The total frequency of menstrual dysfunction among judo athletes was 58.3 %, while 7.1 % of female controls reported oligoamenorrhea. Regression analyses showed that BE-Weight Satisfaction and BMI contributed to 54.6 % and 17 % of the variance, respectively, in the prediction of log-transformed Global EAT scores among female judo athletes. These data indicate that while the prevalence of clinical eating disorders is low in judo athletes, many are "at risk" for an eating disorder, which places them at an increased risk for menstrual irregularity and bone injuries. This study also highlights the relevance of body esteem to eating disorder symptoms.
PMID: 17024652 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Does sodium-bicarbonate ingestion improve simulated judo performance?
Full text not available
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007 Apr;17(2):206-17
Artioli GG, Gualano B, Coelho DF, Benatti FB, Gailey AW, Lancha AH.
School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether preexercise sodium-bicarbonate ingestion improves judo-related performance. The study used 2 different protocols to evaluate performance: 3 bouts of a specific judo test (n = 9) and 4 bouts of the Wingate test for upper limbs (n = 14). In both protocols athletes ingested 0.3 g/kg of sodium bicarbonate or placebo 2 h before the tests. Blood samples were collected to determine lactate level, and levels of perceived exertion were measured throughout the trials. The study used a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design. Ingestion of sodium bicarbonate improved performance in Bouts 2 and 3 of Protocol 1 (P < 0.05), mean power in Bouts 3 and 4 of Protocol 2 (P < 0.05), and peak power in Bout 4 of Protocol 2 (P < 0.05). Ingestion of bicarbonate increased lactate concentration in Protocol 1 (P < 0.05) but not in Protocol 2. Ratings of perceived exertion did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, sodium bicarbonate improves judo-related performance and increases blood lactate concentration but has no effect on perceived exertion.
PMID: 17507744 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7/4/07 1:33:44PM
I'll leave it at that for now. If you search pubmed yourself and find something that isn't listed here and would like to read it, also shoot me a PM and I'll see if I can get it for you.
4/16/08 8:50:27PM
Br J Sports Med. 2008 Mar 4

Injury Trends In Sanctioned Mixed Martial Arts Competition: A Five-Year Review 2002-2007.Ngai KM, Levy F, Hsu EB.

The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Department of Emergency Medicine, United States.

BACKGROUND: Professional mixed martial arts (MMA) competition has emerged as a full contact sport that has risen rapidly in popularity. However, there is limited information regarding the incidence of competition injuries following sanctioning by an athletic commission. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine MMA injury patterns during a five year period following sanctioning in the state of Nevada. Data from all regulated MMA competitions during the study period from March 2002 to September 2007 (n=1,270 fight exposures) was obtained. Injury odds ratios were calculated by conditional logistic regression on match outcome, age, weight and fight experience using a pair-matched case-control design (n=464) and by multiple logistic regression on match outcome, age, fight experience, weight, combat minutes, and scheduled rounds. RESULTS: During the 635 professional MMA matches, 300 of the 1,270 athletes sustained documented injuries with an injury rate of 23.6 per 100 fight participations. Most common reported injuries were lacerations and upper extremity injuries. Severe concussion rate was 16.5 per 1,000 athlete exposures, or 3.3% of all matches. No deaths or critical sports-related injuries resulted from any of the regulated matches during the study period. Age, weight, and fight experience did not statistically increase the likelihood of injuries after controlling for other covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Injury rates in regulated professional MMA competition are similar to other combat sports; the overall risk of critical sports-related injury appears low. Additional study is warranted to achieve a better understanding of injury trends and ways to further lower injury risk in MMA.

PMID: 18308883 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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